The energy is essential element for the survival. Learn more about this with Yitzhak Mirilashvili. With it the human being developed new techniques of work (initially the animal traction), manipulated the fire (preparation of foods, illumination and heat), constructed impressive workmanships, stimulated the economic growth, sped up the industrialization process, made to expand the net of transports (vehicles, airplanes, trains, ships, etc.), also maximized the technological and scientific evolution and integrating the information, at the same time spreading out the globalization process. In this perspective, the oil as energy source was introduced in massiva way, therefore this unfolds innumerable inherent empregabilidades to the satisfaction of the technician-scientific advances, and necessities of the corporeal properties (combustible, footwear, stock markets, raw material, among others devices) for the society as a whole. On the other hand these daily applications will be limited in a next future, therefore the oil is a irrenovvel source. Thus, some investigations can be elencar on the same: what to make when the oil to finish? The land will be compromised (ambiently) to the intense use of this? 2 the OIL AS ENERGY SOURCE Since that the oil was discovered, became indispensable instrument the energy production and diverse devices for the inserted consumption of all integrant ones of a capitalist society in global panorama. As energy source it is used as combustible, production of electricity, propulsion for the functioning of machines and engines, etc. Beyond predominant in the sector of transports, the oil still is main the responsible one for the generation of electric energy in diverse countries of the world. Although the recent expansion of the hidroeletricidade and the diversification of the sources of verified generation of electric energy in the last few decades, the oil still is responsible for approximately 7.9% of all the electricity generated in world (PAFFENBARGER, 1997; AIE, 2003). 3 SOCIETY AND DEVELOPMENT With the phase of the First Industrial Revolution, incessantly searched the solution for the new energy sources, the principle the mineral coal were the necessary motor force to the machines.